SEALS & Scarabs
Available from the Baidun collections are a wide range of seals and scarabs, dating back to the early years of recorded Levant history:
Cylindrical seals, are from 3-5 cm long, pierced lengthwise, first originating in Mesopotamia, made primarily of hematite. When rolled over soft clay, they imparted a long roll of impressions. Clay vessels found in Palestine bear impressions from the early Bronze Age (from about the 3rd millenium BC), extending forward.
Scarab seals originated in Egypt, were generally small at about 18x12 mm and primarily carved stone though some are molded. They were made in the likeness of the dung beetle - a symbol of the heavenly cycle of rebirth and regeneration -- used as amulets and impression seals. They appear in Erez Israel, particularly in the Hyskos period (18th-17th century BC)
Scaraboid seals became widespread in the 9th to 5th centuries BC - without beetle markings but used for signatures or to mark possessions in Syria, Phoenicia and Palestine.